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Minnesota, United States of America (State) 1911 Profile, #11: Education



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The state supports a highly efficient public school system, organized through all the grades from the primary district and rural schools to the state university. At the head of the system stands the state superintendent of public instruction, appointed by the governor; there are also county superintendents; and a state high school board, consisting of the governor, state superintendent and the president of the state university, has general supervision of the schools and apportions the state aid. The schools are supported by a state tax, and by the proceeds of a permanent school fund amounting (in 1908) to $19,709,383; in the same year the total value of all public school property was $28,297,420. with an aggregate debt of $6,329,794, and $13,463,211 was spent for public educational purposes. There are state normal schools at Winona (1860), Mankato(1868), St Cloud (1869),Moorhead (1888) and Duluth (1902). The university of Minnesota at Minneapolis was projected by the Territorial Legislature of 1851. Some ground was purchased for its campus in 1854, but it was actually founded by an act of 1864, amended in 1866, 1868 and 1872. It is governed by a board of twelve regents, of whom the president of the university, the governor of the state and the state superintendent of public instruction are members ex officio, and the other nine, holding office for six years, are appointed by .the governor with the advice and consent of the senate. The university is supported by a state tax of 0.23 mills per dollar on the taxed property of the state, by special appropriations from the state (for " deficiency," for School of Mines, and for salaries of teachers in the department of mines and engineering), by the interest on state bonds and land contracts purchased with the proceeds of Federal land grants under the Morrill Act of 1862, by Federal appropriations under the Morrill Act of 1890 and the Hatch Act, and by students' fees, &c. the total of this income was estimated in1906-1907at 8628,500. The Act of 1872 provided for five or more colleges or departments: a college of science, literature and the arts, which offers (for the degree of Bachelor of Arts) a four-years course, is entirely elective (except that a certain number of " long courses " must be selected) after the first year, and in which the only restriction is upon the range of subjects from which the student's choice may be made; a college of agriculture (including military tactics), which is now a " department," including a college and a school of agriculture, a short course for farmers, a dairy school, the Crookston school of agriculture, a main experiment station at St Anthony Park, between Minneapolis and St Paul, and sub-stations 1 m. north of Crookston and 2 rn. east of Grand Rapids; a college of mechanic arts, now called the college of engineering and the mechanic arts, which offers four-year courses in civil, mechanical, electrical and municipal engineering, a four-year course in science and technology, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science, and graduate work leading to the degree of Master of Science; the college of law, a three-years course, with evening classes and graduate courses; a college of medicine, which is now the college of medicine and surgery (1888), and the college of homoeopathic medicine and surgery (1889), each with four-year courses, and each (since 1903) with a course of six years partly in the college of science, literature and the arts, and partly in the medical college and leading to the 'degrees of Bachelor of Science and Doctor of Medicine. In addition to these departments provided for in the organic act, the university included in 1909 colleges of dentistry (three-year course), pharmacy (two-year and three-year courses), a school of mines (1891; four-year course, leading to the degree of Engineer of Mines or Metallurgical Engineer), a school of analytical and applied chemistry (four-year courses, leading to the degree of Bachelor in Science in Chemistry ,or in Chemical Engineering), a college of education (1906; three-year course, after two years of college work, leading to a Master's degree), a graduate school (with courses leading to the degrees of Master of Arts, of Science and of Laws, and of Doctor of Philosophy, of Science and of Civil Law), and a university summer school. The growth and development of the university have been almost entirely under the administration of Cyrus Northrop (b. 1834), who graduated at Yale College in 1857 and at Yale Law School in 1859, and was professor of rhetoric and English literature at Yale from 1863 until 1884, when he became president of the university of Minnesota. The university is one of the largest in the country. In 1907 there were twenty-three buildings valued at more than 81,475,000. The university library of 110,000 volumes is supplemented by the libraries of Minneapolis and St Paul. In1908-1909the faculty numbered about 325 and the total enrolment of students was 4421. Other higher educational institutions in Minnesota are Hamline University (Methodist Episcopal), with a college of liberal arts at St Paul, and a college of medicine at Minneapolis; Macalester College (Presbyterian) at St Paul; Augsburg Seminary (Lutheran) at Minneapolis; Carleton College (non-sectarian, founded in 1866) and St Olaf College (Lutheran, founded in 1874) at Northfield; Gustavus Adolphus College (Lutheran) at St Peter; Parker College (Free Baptist, 1888) at Winnebago City; St John's University (Roman Catholic) at Collegeville, Stearns county; and Albert Lea College for women (Presbyterian, founded 1884) at Albert Lea.

NOTE: This article is an historical reference based on the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica, now in the Public Domain. The text is provided through scanning and OCR conversion. There may be transcription errors in the article. Encyclopedia style: 1) For reasons of cost and academic writing style, the paragraphs are long in length. 2) Contributors to articles are sometimes identified by their initials in parentheses at the end of the article. 3) Some articles include a section called "Authorities," a record of all the sources used when writing the article. 4) Information is based on knowledge available in 1911 and may be inaccurate, especially in the areas of science, law, and ethnography. 5) Images and diagrams from the original are not included with article. 6) Do not use this information for medical or legal guidance or any research requiring current information.

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      "Minnesota, United States of America," Encyclopedia Britannica, Volume 18, Medal to Mumps (11th ed.), (New York: Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911); digital edition, (http://mygenshare.com : posted 15 Jan 2013)

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