Minnesota, United States of America (State) 1911 Profile, #04: Climate


Minnesota has the characteristic climate of the North Central group of states, with a low mean annual temperature, a notably rarefied atmosphere that results in an almost complete absence of damp foggy weather, and an unusual dryness which during the rather long winters considerably neutralizes the excessive cold. The cold increases not only from south to north, but to some extent from east to west. The mean annual temperature, according to the reports of the U.S. Weather Bureau, varies from 45 degrees F. at St Paul and points in the south of the state to 37 degrees F., at points in the north-east and as far south-west as Moorhead, Clay county. In the south the season is usually without killing frost from early in May to late in September, but in the north it is not uncommon late in May or early in September. The amount of rain decreases from east to west, the mean annual rainfall being 32.7 in. at Grand Meadow in the south-east and 33.3 in. at Mount Iron in the north-east, but less than 25 in. at several points of observation in the western half of the state. In all sections about as much, or even more, rain falls in summer as in both autumn and winter, and the summer rains, together with the long summer days, are very favourable to a rapid growth and early maturity of crops. Nearly the whole state is usually covered with snow during the greater part of winter, and the mean annual fall of snow varies from about 52 in. at points in the north-east to less than 25 in. in the south-west. In most localities the prevailing winds are northwest in winter and southerly in summer, but at Duluth, on the shore of Lake Superior, they are south-west during November, December and January and north-east during all other months.

NOTE: This article is an historical reference based on the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica, now in the Public Domain. The text is provided through scanning and OCR conversion. There may be transcription errors in the article. Encyclopedia style: 1) For reasons of cost and academic writing style, the paragraphs are long in length. 2) Contributors to articles are sometimes identified by their initials in parentheses at the end of the article. 3) Some articles include a section called "Authorities," a record of all the sources used when writing the article. 4) Information is based on knowledge available in 1911 and may be inaccurate, especially in the areas of science, law, and ethnography. 5) Images and diagrams from the original are not included with article. 6) Do not use this information for medical or legal guidance or any research requiring current information.

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      "Minnesota, United States of America," Encyclopedia Britannica, Volume 18, Medal to Mumps (11th ed.), (New York: Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911); digital edition, ( : posted 15 Jan 2013)

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